The Decalogue Codex was engraved on two tablets: the five etched on the first tablet deal with humanity’s relationship with God while the five etched on the second deal with man’s relationship with his fellow man.
Of the 613 biblical commandments, God selected these ten commandments for special attention. He directly communicated them to the Children of Israel without using Moses as an intermediary, and inscribed them on the tablets which were placed in the Sacred Ark of the Covenant within the Holy of Holies.
It is evident that although all the mitzvot are vital, the five carved into the first tablet were chosen because they form the basis of our relationship with the Creator, while the latter five serve as the foundation of our relationship with fellow people. The following is an attempt to delve briefly into the deeper meaning of the Ten Commandments.
I am the Lord, thy God, who took thou out of the Land of Egypt
Thou shall not take for worship other deities in My Presence
Thou shall not take the Name of the Lord, thy God, in vain
Remember the Sabbath Day to sanctify it
Honor thy father and your mother
“The wine belongs to the host, but thanks is said to the waiter.”
Thou shall not slay another wrongfully
Thou shall not indulge in sexual immorality
Thou shall not commit foul play upon thy kith and kin
Thou shall not bear false witness against thy neighbor
Thou shall not covet thy neighbor's possessions
Although most of the above prohibitions are admonitions against egregious sins which most of us wouldn’t even consider committing, the prohibitions have subtle undertones which are applicable to every person.
— Rabbi Naftali Silberberg, The Rohr Jewish Learning Institute